都市探査のトップ10都市

2012-10-29
ロンドン地下鉄の一部であるアルドウイッチ駅は、90年代から閉鎖されています。しかし、それはほとんど放棄されていません。戦時中の外観に復元され、ツアーの場所になることもあります。

以前は「人造の建造物に忍び込んでチェックする」と呼ばれていた、現在「都市探査」として知られている娯楽は、誠実な運動に成長しました。世界中の信者は、廃墟となった建物、地下トンネル、下水道、未使用の地下鉄など、都市の隠れた側面を探索します。彼らは通常、不法侵入のスリル以上のものを求めています。

真の都市探査者は、破壊も盗みもしません。それでも、彼らがしていることは、ほとんどの場合、違法ではありません。また、放棄された構造物は、そこにある最も構造的に健全な構造物ではないため、通常は危険です。怪我は珍しいことではありません。雨が彼らが探検していた雨水管に氾濫したときに溺死した2人の20代の芸術家、または放棄されたゴム工場の開いたエレベーターシャフトに落ちた23歳の芸術家のように死が起こった[出典:ベイカー、マハー]。

しかし、魅力的なものになる可能性があります。過去の建築時代、アート、都市の衰退、アンティークの機械、文化が消え去り、文字通り埋もれていく様子を垣間見ることができます。それは写真家や歴史家のための飼料です。何人かの探検家は彼らが見つけたものを登ります。他の人は、忘れられたものに肌がチクチクするだけの没頭を求めます。

確かに、移動の少ない都市道路に不足はありませんが、定義上、これらの場所を見つけるのは難しい場合があります。ここでは、都市探査で最も収益性の高い10の場所を紹介します。すでに人気のあるものもあります。他の人はほとんど触れられていません。多くはそれが得るのと同じくらい不気味です。

まず、ドイツでは...

コンテンツ
  1. ベルリン
  2. ブリュッセル
  3. デンバー
  4. デトロイト
  5. ロンドン
  6. ミネアポリス-セント ポール
  7. ニューヨーク
  8. パリ
  9. ローマ
  10. ロサンゼルス

10:ベルリン

忙しい日々のベルリンオリンピック村。

大きな魅力:Beelitz-Heilstätten病院

アドルフ・ヒトラーが首相になるずっと前に、彼は第一次世界大戦時代の軍病院であるベーリッツ・ハイルシュテッテンで、1916年に若い兵士として足を負傷したとして治療を受けました[出典:ホーキンス]。ほぼ80年後、退陣した東ドイツの独裁者エーリッヒホーネッカーはそこで癌の治療を受けました。

療養所は、ドイツの結核の発生に対処するために1800年代後半に建設されたため、複合施設は巨大です。それは後にドイツの軍病院、次にロシアの軍病院、そして最終的にはヴォルフガング・シュミットという名の連続殺人犯のストーキンググラウンドになりました[出典:チョーク]。

さらに探索する:

  • イラク大使館:1991年にすぐに放棄され、家具、タイプライター、本、文書が残っています[出典:アルジャジーラ]。
  • 1936年オリンピック村:アーリア人の優位性、ジェシーオーエンスの多面的な勝利の場所、第二次世界大戦後のロシア占領者の兵舎を紹介するために建てられました。広大な複合施設は1992年以来沈黙しています[出典:Scraton ]。
  • Spreepark Planterwald:動かない観覧車を備えた放棄された遊園地。十分に言った。

次に、ベルギーへ...

9:ブリュッセル

ラーケンの地上のアトラクションには、美しいロイヤル温室があります。しかし、地下には、長い間見捨てられていた地下室があります。

ビッグドロー:放棄された地下室、ラーケン

確かにヨーロッパには放棄された墓地が不足していませんが、ブリュッセルに近いラーケンの町には特に良い場所があります(これらのことに関しては)。

A series of tunnels runs beneath a cemetery in the village -- tunnels housing nearly 100 years of the city's dead in vault-lined walls. The crypt was abandoned decades ago when authorities determined the maintenance was too expensive, or so the story goes [source: Colette].

Crypts are eerie places. This crypt is remarkably so. Icicles hang from streaky skylights. Hazy light falls on inscribed names and dates of the dead, most still entombed there. Some vault covers are absent; dark, empty, coffin-sized spaces dot the walls. Flowers, most dead, some plastic, lie where family members left them on their last visits, lending the place a creepy sense of unexpected abandonment [source: Colette].

More to explore:

  • Fort de la Chartreuse, in Liège: An abandoned fort constructed in the early 1800s, but never used for defense. It was taken over by the people during the Belgian revolution, became a German prison during the world wars and then an American military hospital after Germany's second defeat [source: Forbidden Places].
  • Hasard collieries, in Cheratte: Coal mine built in the mid-1800s and abandoned in the 1970s, especially noteworthy for its gothic architecture and the mining equipment left behind [source: Forbidden Places].

Now, to the American West ...

8: Denver

Far below the circus-tent canopies of Denver International Airport lies a network of tunnels -- restricted to all but a few people.

大きな魅力空港(そうです、空港です。)

デンバー国際空港(DIA)は、単に世界で最大かつ最も忙しい空港の1つではありません。それはまた、現代の最も奇妙な陰謀説のいくつかの主題でもあります。

そこにはトンネルがあり、空港の下を走る大規模なネットワークがあり、入場を許可されている人はほとんどいません。

手荷物ハンドラーは別として、それはです。これらのトンネルは、DIA専用に設計された最先端の手荷物処理システムの主要ルートとして建設されましたが、すぐに惨めに失敗し、現在、片方の端から手荷物を受け取るローテクシステムをホストしています。他の[出典:ジョンソン]への広大な空港。

Some conspiracy theorists believe the airport was built as a decoy -- a sort of key to the unfolding of the end of days or a secure location for the righteous when that time comes. Secret governments and the Freemasons play into the theories, too.

Those tunnels are essential to the story, but there's more: DIA was (somewhat controversially) constructed in what used to be the true middle of nowhere, far from the city center and general populace; inside, commissioned murals depict apparently apocalyptic messages; and an inscription in one terminal wall seems to loosely reference the New World Order, a famous conspiracy theory involving a one-world government [source: Mahers].

Access to the tunnels is restricted, of course; but most of the other evidence is open to the ticket-holding public.

More to explore:

  • Abandoned weapons silos, military airfields and nuclear burial grounds.
  • Abandoned air-traffic-control tower at what used to be Stapleton Airport, the only remaining evidence of DIA's predecessor.

Then, eastward ...

7: Detroit

The Packard plant is dangerous enough that the fire department can't even venture inside.

Big draw: Packard Automotive Plant

It's no surprise that the parts of "Motor City" abandoned by the motor makers would offer a lot of ghost-town structures. The Packard plant is one of the biggest. It was built in 1903, closed and converted into an industrial complex in the 1950s, closed again in the 1990s, and finally looted down to nothing [source: Detroiturbex].

Now, what's left is the damaged bones -- brick walls, scattered cinderblocks and beams warped by fires no one puts out; frames of the between-building bridges that sheltered workers in the Detroit winter; mounds of tires, rubble and broken glass; and the occasional truck driven into the building to haul away looted materials, oddly left behind.

The structural state of the plant is such that the fire department has been ordered to stay out -- thus the fires burning freely [source: Lam].

More to explore:

  • Belle Isle Children's Zoo: Opened in 1895, closed and then reopened in the 1970s, and finally abandoned in 2002 [source: Preuss].
  • Countless abandoned synagogues, churches, hospitals, fire stations and entire residential neighborhoods.
  • The old Cass Technical High School building: Vacant since 2005, when Cass moved next door, and still filled with desks, bookcases and copy machines. Diana Ross and Lily Tomlin both went to school there [source: Detroiturbex].

Heading now across the Atlantic ...

6: London

Aldwych station had a bustling side-life during World War II: This concert (with the audience standing on the tracks) was given by the Entertainments National Services Association in 1942.

Big draw: The London Underground

It's the oldest subway system in the world, with initial construction dating back to the 1850s, offering urban explorers something most underground railways can't: a seemingly unlimited supply of unused tracks, tunnels and stations.

There are long-vacant stations, including Down Street, which closed in the early '30s; and ones like Aldwych, closed to the public in the '90s (but still open to the occasional film crew), both of which sheltered Londoners during World War II bombing raids [source: Cooper].

Other underground paths, like the well-secured Post Office Railway line that closed in 2003, were in use so recently they offer a tour of lines in near-working condition for the most resourceful of urban explorers (read: those willing and able to commit the felony of breaking in) [source: Silent UK].

More to explore:

  • Millennium Mills: A flour mill built in the 1930s and one of the biggest ever in London, abandoned in 1992 and currently vacant [source: Derelict London].
  • Strand Union Workhouse: Built in the 18th century to house and employ the indigent, converted to an infirmary in the 1830s, when social services were cut back. Charles Dickens lived just blocks from the workhouse, and many believe it inspired "Oliver Twist" [source: BBC].

Back to the United States, the Midwest now...

5: Minneapolis-St. Paul

Underneath the streets of St. Paul, a network of tunnels called the Labyrinth links abandoned and in-use sewer, phone and gas lines, among others.

Big draw: The Labyrinth

"Tunnel system" would be a ridiculous understatement. Beneath the city of St. Paul, Minn., a massive, varied, nearly pristine world of interconnected tunnels reaches at least five stories deep and goes on for miles. Built in the 1800s in the heart of the city, it includes seven very different but ultimately connected systems, some overlapping in areas, some still in use, serving such varied utilities as phone systems, sewer systems, water and gas lines and power for the city's long-gone electric street cars. Each system reveals different architectural styles, with occasional carvings in the sandstone walls, presumably the work of those building the tunnels [source: Action Squad].

No one is allowed in. Access requires rappelling skills.

More to explore:

  • Ford Motors mining tunnels : Where the auto giant used to mine its own materials for glass.
  • Cambridge State Hospital: Infamous for abusing its mental patients.
  • Hamm's Brewery: Open from the 1860s to the 1990s, where beer-making equipment still remains [source: Action Squad].

Moving northeastward ...

4: New York

In addition to the abandoned Amtrak line, New York City of course also has its extensive subway system. This 1870 engraving shows the opening of the Broadway tunnel.

Big draw: The "Freedom Tunnel"

In the 1930s, Amtrak ran underground commuter trains from a hub in Manhattan. The tunnels were abandoned when cars reduced the need for that network, and now they're some of the most famous in the world.

Between 1980 and 1996, graffiti artist Chris "Freedom" Pape painted murals on the tunnel walls -- thus the unofficial name [source: Vandalog]. But the tunnel has come to mean more than that.

Depicted in the 2000 documentary "Dark Days," the Freedom Tunnel was for years home to outsiders, people no longer able to or interested in living in the world above ground. There was a whole dark city down there, right under Manhattan, now abandoned again but still displaying the art for which it was named and physical reminders of the people who lived there.

More to explore:

  • Columbia University tunnels: Underground network that once hosted, among other things, the Manhattan Project [source: GoG].
  • Hospital X: Abandoned network of buildings dating back to the early 20th century. "Jacob's Ladder" was filmed in one of its tuberculosis wards [source: GMD].

3: Paris

The Paris Catacombs feature legal opportunities for urban explorers.

Big draw: The Paris Catacombs

In the late 1700s, an outbreak of infectious disease was traced to a cemetery in Paris. To save the living, the dead were unearthed and moved to old quarries beneath the city [source: Catacombs Museum]. Those quarries are part of the subterranean network known as the Paris Catacombs.

Over several decades, every cemetery in Paris was emptied, the bodies relocated to the tunnels that would finally come to house about 6 million skeletons , stacked against the tunnel walls [source: Tancock].

The Catacombs are open to the public -- no breaking in required.

More to explore:

  • Fort du Portalet, Bearn: Built in the mid-1800s to defend against a Spanish invasion, converted to a German prison during the World War II occupation, liberated by Spain in 1944 and abandoned in the 1960s [source: Forbidden Places].
  • Château Bijou, southern France: An abandoned castle (now protected as a historical monument) built in the mid-1700s and expanded in the early 1900s, noteworthy for its Italian-inspired architecture [source: Forbidden Places].

Next, over in Italy...

2: Rome

Private monasteries and churches in Rome also feature their own catacombs; this Capuchin monastery was photographed in the 1880s.

Big draw: The Catacombs of Rome

You can't beat the Roman Catacombs for legendary significance: There are those who believe the Holy Grail is hidden in the tunnel beneath the Basilica of St. Lawrence.

The Vatican doesn't buy it, but that doesn't detract from the experience [source: Valsecchi]. Some of these burial tunnels, which run for hundreds of miles under Rome, date to the first century, when they were built as Jewish cemeteries ; the Christian burial tunnels date to the second century and have hardly been explored, as the Vatican owns these and seldom lets anybody enter them [source: Valsecchi]. Popes and saints are among the dead buried in the Christian crypts [source: CCofR].

More to explore:

  • Manicomio della Marcigliana orphanage: Abandoned in the 1970s, now empty of everything that wasn't nailed down [source: Preuss]
  • Forum of Nerva, public gathering place dating to 97 AD, now underground and accessible via Rome's sewers [source: Capitolium].

Last, to sunny California ...

1: Los Angeles

Hitler in L.A.? That's what Winona and Norman Stephens, California Nazi sympathizers, hoped would eventually happen when they built their ranch.

Big draw: Murphy Ranch

In 1933, Hitler became chancellor, the Nazi party took over the German government, and Winona and Norman Stephens built a Nazi commune in Los Angeles.

Herr Fuhrer, they believed, would someday come to rule there. After Pearl Harbor was bombed, though, the place was emptied out, and its inhabitants were charged as Nazi sympathizers [source: Almendrala].

Now, the compound known as Murphy's Ranch, once a self-sustaining community that supplied its own power and water, stored its own food, and had its own bunkers just in case, is a vandalized shell of its former self [source: Almendrala]. It's accessible to the public, and people come to see what remains of a U.S.-based Nazi cult preparing for Germany's victory -- and, inexplicably, Hitler's reign from a ranch in L.A.

More to explore:

  • Griffith Park Zoo, founded in 1912, abandoned in the 1960s when construction of the larger Los Angeles Zoo was complete [source: Preuss].
  • Linda Vista Hospital, built in the early 1900s as a medical center for people injured building the new railroad, now abandoned and frightening enough to have been the filming location for a number of horror movies [source: Riggs].

Through almost all of this -- abandoned crypts, hospitals, forts and zoos, and orphanages -- runs the theme of neglect, and a resulting eeriness to which urban explorers seem irresistibly drawn. There's plenty of it to go around, with abandoned structures and towns and tunnel systems lying unnoticed all over the world, ripe for discovery and recording. All are accessible to those willing to risk fines, prison and death; quite a few are accessible to those who'd rather not.

Either way, the hidden world awaits.

For more information on urban exploration, check out the links on the next page.

Lots More Information

Author's Note: Top 10 Cities for Urban Exploration

間違いなく、都市探査は興味をそそる事業であり、その動機はしばしば感情的で芸術的で学術的な関心があり、その製品はしばしば美しく、明らかになります。それでも、このシリーズでの危険性についての言及には理由があります。この興味深い慣行は安全ではありません。

And often illegal, but many people will brush that off -- and really, what's a misdemeanor trespassing charge in the face of abandoned crypts and asylums? Bodily harm, though, is something different (I think), and my hope is that readers who are interested in urban exploring will also be interested in the physical risks involved. Death and injury in the course of exploring are not everyday occurrences, but neither are they so rare as to chalk them up to simple bad luck. Storm drains do flood unexpectedly. Unmaintained, century-old staircases do crumble. Open elevator shafts do disappear in dark, abandoned warehouses.

Do, then, keep in mind: There are many reports of urban-exploring deaths and near-misses. I just ran out of room.

Related Articles

Sources

  • Abandoned Berlin.(Oct. 15, 2012) http://www.abandonedberlin.com/
  • Action Squad: Minneapolis Urban Adventurers. (Oct. 15, 2012) http://www.actionsquad.org/
  • Almendrala, Anna. "Hitler Bunker In Los Angeles: Murphy Ranch Reveals An Alternate Universe." The Huffington Post. March 19, 2012. (Oct. 24, 2012) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/19/hitler-bunker-los-angeles-murphy-ranch_n_1363362.html
  • Calhoun, Patricia. "Urban explorers still drawn to abandoned Gates factory despite tragic accidents." Westword. Feb. 14, 2011. (Oct. 15, 2012) http://blogs.westword.com/latestword/2011/02/urban_explorers_gates_factory_tragic_accidents.php
  • Catacombs of Paris Museum. http://www.catacombes-de-paris.fr/english.htm
  • Chalk, Titus and Jacob Henze. "The haunted sanatorium of Beelitz." ExBerliner. May 5, 2011. (Oct. 19, 2012) http://www.exberliner.com/articles/the-haunted-sanatorium-of-beelitz
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  • "Château Bijou." Forbidden Places. (Oct. 23, 2012) http://www.forbidden-places.net/urban-exploration-chateau-bijou#.UIcHRFFQj3A
  • The Christian Catacombs of Rome. (Oct. 24, 2012) http://www.catacombe.roma.it/en/index.php
  • Clift, Isabel. "Abandoned Berlin: 6 Secret Places to Explore." Hostel Bookers. April 23, 2012. (Oct. 15, 2012) http://blog.hostelbookers.com/top-cities/abandoned-berlin/
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  • Cooper, Rob. "Who said trainspotting was for anoraks?" The Daily Mail Online. Feb. 25, 2012. (Oct. 15, 2012) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2106349/Who-said-trainspotting-anoraks-Meet-urban-explorers-hunting-Londons-ghost-stations-sparked-terror-alert-Royal-wedding.html
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  • Lam, Tina, et al. "A month after owner said he'd tear down Packard Plant, zero progress made." Detroit Free Press. March 28, 2012. (Oct. 21, 2012) http://www.freep.com/article/20120328/NEWS05/203280360/A-month-after-owner-said-he-d-tear-down-Packard-Plant-zero-progress-made
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  • Ryan, JD. "Forgotten Places Photoblog: New York Hospital X". Green Mountain Daily. June 13, 2010. (Oct. 23, 2012) http://www.greenmountaindaily.com/diary/6375/forgotten-places-new-york-hospital-x
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  • タンコック、キャット。「世界で最も不気味な場所8か所:フランス、パリのカタコンベ。」MSNカナダ:旅行。(2012年10月23日)http://travel.ca.msn.com/rd-gallery.aspx?cp-documentid=31159183&page=1
  • ヴァルセッキ、マリアクリスティーナ。「ローマの古代カタコンベの中身は?」ナショナル・ジオグラフィック。(3012年10月24日)http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/archaeology/rome-catacombs/

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